Sports Medicine


There are many things that can cause pain in the shoulder. The most common shoulder problems are:

  • IMPINGEMENT: occurs when the top of the shoulder blade is putting pressure on underlying ligaments, muscle and tendons when you lift your arm away from your body. This can lead to bursitis and tendinitis, causing pain and limiting movement.

  • TENDON INFLAMMATION OR TEAR: the most common affected tendons in the shoulder are the 4 rotator cuff tendons and one of the bicep tendons. Splitting and tearing may result from chronic injury, aging, long-term overuse or sudden injury.

  • INSTABILITY: is the result of a sudden injury or overuse. This can lead to lose or torn ligaments, tendons and muscles as well as repeated dislocations. This can increase your risk of developing arthritis in the joint.

  • ARTHRITIS: There are many types of arthritis but the most common is “wear and tear” (osteoarthritis). Other types of arthritis are related to tears, infections and inflammation,

  • FRACTURE: Shoulder fractures typically happen in the collarbone, upper arm bone or shoulder blade. They can results from a fall, high energy injury (car accident), or a sports related injury. They can cause pain, swelling and bruising around the shoulder.


Hip pain refers to pain felt in the area around or in the hip join. It often times can be felt in the groin or thigh.

Common causes of hip pain

  • TENDONITIS which is often causes by over use/exercise.

  • ARTHRITIS which is the most common cause of chronic hip pain

  • TROCHANTERIC BURSITIS caused by the bursa (a liquid-filled sac near the hip joint) becomes inflamed

  • HIP FRACTURES are most common in adults who have osteoporosis, but can happen to anyone. They require immediate medical attention.

  • SNAPPING HIP SYNDROME is a painless condition where you can feel or hear a snapping sound in the hip while walking or getting up from a sitting position. It is a sign that there is a cartilage tear or fragments of material in the hip.

  • OSTEONECROSIS also known as avascular necrosis happens when blood is no longer reaching the bones. This can be temporary or permanent.


Knee pain is one of the most common kinds of pain and can be experienced by anyone at any age. It can be acute, chronic or take place after an injury/trauma.

Common Causes includes:

  • INURY which is the most common cause of knee pain and happens when the knee is twisted in the wrong direction, takes a blunt trauma, or a sprain / strain happen during a quick / sudden movement.

  • Common Knee Injuries include: Fractures, Dislocation, Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL), Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL), Collateral Ligament Injuries, Meniscal Tears and Tendon tears

  • TENDINITIS which is a type of inflammation that causes redness, tenderness to the touch and intense pain in the tendons of the knees

  • ARTHRITIS common types of arthritis in the knee includes Osteoarthritis (OA) & Pseudogout

  • BURSITIS when the bursa in the knee becomes inflamed

  • CHONDROMALACIA OF THE PATELLA is the breakdown / softening of the patella.


The main culprit of elbow pain is usually overuse or one of the many elbow disorders

Elbow Disorders:

  • MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS also known as golfer’s elbow or little leaguer’s elbow is a condition that causes pain along the inside of the elbow.

  • LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS more commonly known as tennis elbow is when you have pain or a burning sensation along the outside of the elbow. It can also cause problems with gripping.

  • OLECRANON BURSITIS also recognized as student’s elbow, miner’s elbow, and draftsman’s elbow occurs when a blow to the elbow happens, infection, arthritis or from leaning on the elbow for a long period of time.

  • ARTHRITIS with the most common being Osteoarthritis (OA).

  • DISLOCATION / FRACTURE happen when an injury to the elbow occurs such as a fall on an outstretched arm.

  • LIGAMENT STRAIN / SPRAIN are usually the result from a trauma or repeated stress on the elbow ligaments.

  • OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECAN also called Panner’s disease is caused by typically by a sports related injury and causes a small piece of cartilage / bone to become dislodged in the elbow joint.


Ankle disorders result from damage to the bone, soft tissue, or muscle in and around the ankle. The ankle is the most frequently injured joint in the body. Common Types: SPRAINS: An injury to the ligaments in the ankle FRACTURES TENDONITITS: Caused by inflammation to the tendons in the ankle ARTHRITIS: Chronic inflammation of the ankle joint Common Causes: Running Jumping Overuse Twisting or rotating the ankle beyond its normal range of motion Tripping / falling Landing on the foot with more force than normal Lack of conditioning for the muscles in the leg and foot Excess strain on tendons Bone Spurs Flat Feet that are left untreated Symptoms: Pain, swelling, stiffness, decreased mobility in ankle, unable to weight bare on the ankle, difficulty when walking, bruising, pain in the heal, thickening of tendon, loud popping sound at the back of the heel Possible Treatments: NSAIDS, Tylenol, Aspirin, ICE / Elevating, Cast / Compression bandages, Injections, Surgery, Joint Replacement Prevention: Stretch / warm up before physical activity Wearing shoes that provide ankle support

Hand & Wrist

Most hand and wrist pain happens due to a trauma or injury however other hand and wrist pain develops over time.

Causes include:

  • INJURY such as sprain, strain, broken bone, tendonitis.

  • CARPEL TUNNEL SYNDROME occurs when the median nerve becomes compressed or pinched.

  • ARTHRITIS or inflammation of the joint

  • DE QUERVAIN’S TENOSYNOVITIS affects the tendons around your thumb causing pain and swelling around the base of your thumb.

  • GANGLION CYSTS is a fluid filled mass or lump that forms near the joint of the hand or wrist

  • PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY causes numbness, pain, and weakness in your hands and feet.

  • STENOSING TENOSYNOVITIS more commonly called trigger finger and is when the thumb gets “stuck” in a bent position.


  • Pain Relievers

  • REST / ICE

  • Braces / Splints / Immobilization

  • Physical Therapy

  • Injections

  • Regenerative Medicine

  • Surgery

Common Surgeries:

  • Arthroscopy (scope)

  • Subacromial Decompression

  • Rotator Cuff Repair

  • Labral tear repair

  • SLAP repair

  • Distal Clavicle excision

  • Bicep Tendon repair

  • Arthroscopic Meniscectomy / Meniscus Repair

  • ACL Reconstruction

  • Ulna Nerve Transposition

  • Tennis Elbow Release

  • Fractures

  • Open Carpal Tunnel Release

  • Trigger Finger Release

  • Joint Replacement

Arthroscopy: Ankle, Knee & Shoulder

Often referred to as a scope is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to look within the joint to diagnose and treat issues within the joint. The most common types of conditions found during an arthroscopic procedure are:

Inflammation, Rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, recurrent dislocations, meniscal tears, chondromalacia, ligament and tendon tears, ACL tears or a loose body of bone and / or cartilage